• Cycad Process® has been used to model most processes in mineral industries
    • Hydrometallurgical
    • Pyrometallurgical
    • Ore dressing and minerals processing
  • Copper processes
    • Chambishi
    • Boss Mining
    • Metalkol
  • Platinum
    • RBMR (Anglo Platinum)
    • Lonmin Platinum Base Metals Refinery
    • Northam Platinum Base Metals Refinery
    • Impala Platinum base Metals Refinery
  • Vanadium (undisclosed)
  • Titanium (Anglo American)
  • Zinc (Skorpion Zinc)
  • Zinc (Vedanta Black Mountain)
  • Copper pressure leach (design)
  • Magnetic separation plant
  • Pyrometallurgical production of zinc (design)
  • Copper Feasibility study (Nicico)
  • Pigment grade iron oxide (design)


  • Full graphical interface conforming to typical Windows standards
  • Drag-and-drop interface
  • Extensive library of process units
  • Properties entered through an intuitive Properties Viewer
  • Ability to layer elements within a document
  • Easy multi-page navigation

Steady-state simulations:

  • Sequential modular approach to simulations
  • Intelligent, automatic calculation of recycle streams to minimize solution time
  • No ordering of the process units required


  • Large library of calculation based on published solution methods
  • Energy balance integrated with all calculations
  • Direct correspondence between the plant, the simulations diagrams and the calculations

Component data:

  • Extensive component database with physical and basic thermodynamic data
  • Can easily add user-specified components
  • Can export and import components from other Cycad Process® projects


  • Can script your own process unit
  • Uses C# language for scripting
  • Can access many internal functions/methods
  • Can reference all properties of input streams and the unit

Extensive reaction options available:

  • Extent/conversion-based reactions
  • Rate-based (liquid or gas phases)
  • Gas mass transfer
  • Shrinking particle/core models

Milling and crushing:

  • Milling breakage curves
  • Crushing gradation curves.

Particle size distributions:

  • Cycad Process® can track and calculate the changes in particle sizes in processes such as milling and leaching


  • Designers are used to target process unit outputs and sometimes referred to as ‘controllers’
  • Unit-specific and flowsheet (general) designers are available
  • Many solver methods available for both sets of designers – Bisection, Secant, Ridders, Brent (default)


  • Engineering quality drawings
    • Block flow diagrams
    • Process flow diagrams
  • Easily include and update mass balance table on diagrams
  • Easily include and update equipment table on diagrams
  • A number of reports are available
    • Detailed mass balance
    • Production and reagents
    • Water balance
    • Mass balance design criteria
    • Equipment (including pumps/valves) list
    • Separate valve, pump and line lists currently under development
  • Export
    • Can export all reports to Microsoft Excel
    • Can export diagrams to JPEG, BMP files


  • Comparing results between different versions or calculations can be difficult and time consuming for even a relatively small balance. Cycad Process® has a ‘Compare Cases’ function

Parameter estimation:

  • Uses Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm to fit parameters
  • Can be used to fit most process unit parameters using measured data

Dynamic simulations:

  • Dynamic modelling of heap leaching operations
  • Dynamic processes, such a as the batch distillation of ruthenium
  • Contact our engineers should you wish to perform these simulations